What is WiFi Repeater in Networking | Choose WiFi Range Extender

What is WiFi Repeater in Networking | Choose WiFi Range Extender

A WiFi repeater in Networking is a device that allows you to expand an existing Wi-Fi network, repeating the signals exactly. You need to install a repeater at the very border of signal reception. In a data-network, a repeater can repeat the messages or signals between sub-networks that use different protocols/cable types. A repeater can not do the intelligent routing performed by bridges and routers. Hubs can operate as repeaters by relaying messages to all connected computers. 

When using a normal WiFi router, there may be one problem. If the router is cheap enough, then you may face an issue of bad signals. If the router is located in a house with concrete or very thick walls, then the signal will be even worse. Of course, the more expensive models have the possibility of changing the antennas to more powerful ones, but this is impossible for budget models. I lead to the fact that to increase the signal area of ​​the router, you can use special equipment, which is called a wifi repeater in networking.

What is a repeater and what are its functions?

A repeater is a device that allows you to expand the existing WiFi network, repeating it exactly. You need to install a repeater at the very border of signal reception. For small network one repeater will be enough. It is necessary to acquire more than one device for various enterprises and firms. Since the signal will have to be broadcast on several floors, and then all this should be combined into one network. An interesting technology called WDS is introduced in modern routers, which also allows you to expand the network by combining several access points into one network. This network will use the same frequency, encryption and password.

It is worth noting that if there is a dual-band router, that is, it can work both at 2 GHz and at 5 GHz , you need to acquire an appropriate repeater that can extend the signal of both bands.

How repeater work, and how to choose a repeater?

The function of the repeater to extend the wifi signals. You need to place it in the place where the signal from the router ends, but not very far, and then it will amplify the signal and transmit further, that's all science.

Following are some main functions or characteristic of repeater working:

  • A repeater repeats exactly the network that you use, in other words, it copies data about your Wi-Fi network and transmits it further. Usually, to configure both devices, you need to press the WPS button on the router and on the repeater.
  • The device will connect to the Wi-Fi equipment, from which the signal level is higher. That is, if you are sitting closer to the repeater, then, for example, the smartphone will connect to it, because its signal is greater.
  • No matter what you connect devices (TVs, tablets, smartphones) to the repeater or to the router, the network will be one, and you can do whatever you want with it.
We now turn to the question of what kind of repeaters can be and which one can be purchased. There are many different types of repeaters that sometimes are difficult to understand. For home network use quite suitable for small and inexpensive devices that plug into the outlet. Such devices are put in place of not very good signal reception.

For larger network, you need to purchase devices that create access points. It is necessary that they have WDS technology or work as a repeater. Although it is the same thing.
Devices should have sufficiently powerful antennas, preferably 5 dBi, and so that they are removable if you suddenly want to change them to even more powerful ones. By the way, there are also routers that can work in repeater mode. I will not say anything about the model, everyone chooses to his own taste.

GNS3 Appliances | Features and uses

GNS3 Appliances | Features and uses

What are GNS3 Appliances?

GNS3 appliances are modern way to create different virtual network scenario on GNS3. These are PRE CONFIGURED IOS and operating systems and you can use them in GNS3 for creating the different virtual labs. After the release on new GNS3 version now different vendors are provide images of their operating system for free. Mostly Cisco images are paid. You can purchase Cisco IOS images or a VIRL license from virl.cisco.com.

There are different types of GNS3 appliances are available at GNS3.com. You can simply download these appliances and can create different network lab on your PC. Before GNS3 appliances you only have GNS3 images for creating network labs on GNS3. The GNS3-appliances are configured with its recommended-settings & have been carefully tested. You can have a much better user experience using these gns3 virtual appliances.

Features of GNS3 Appliances:

With pre-configured GNS3 appliances you have the following benefits:
  • As GNS3 virtual appliances are configure with recommended and best setting that why you will also encounter fewer errors.
  • These GNS3 virtual appliances are capable to find the suitable images and required files from your local directory. Download links are also available for installation of these required custom images while importing these appliances.
  • GNS3 appliances include some pre-installed OS for virtual environment. You can use them directly in GNS3 and save a lot of time for you.
  • Now different vendors like Cisco, juniper, Ubuntu, windows etc are providing their operation system and network device/appliances for creating virtual labs on Gns3. So you can have virtual hands-on experience with these appliances.

Types of appliances available at GNS3.com

Following are the appliances which are available on GNS3 website for creating virtual labs. If you are havingissue while importing GNS3 virtual appliances you can visit here.
There are different types of GNS3 applainces are available on GNS3 website like Cisco IOS, Different operating Systems, Web-browser, Security Devices and systems etc

  1. PA-VM (Palo Alto Networks)
  2. Cisco IOSvL2
  3. Cisco ISE
  4. FreeNAS (iXsystems)
  5. Ubuntu Docker Guest
  6. Checkpoint GAiA (Checkpoint)
  7. FortiGate
  8. Cisco 3660
  9. Cisco 2691
  10. Cisco IOU L3
  11. Cisco
  12. Firefox
  13. Cloudrouter
  14. HP VSR1001
  15. BSDRP
  16. OpenWrt
  17. Open vSwitch
  18. NX-OSv 9000
  19. Juniper vMX vFP
  20. Ubuntu Cloud Guest
  21. Ubuntu Desktop Guest
  22. Juniper vSRX
  23. Cisco IOSv
  24. Junos Space
  25. Cisco 7200
  26. OpenSUSE
  27. OpenSUSE Project
  28. Windows server
  29. Cisco CSR1000v
  30. Sophos XG
  31. Cisco IOS XRv
  32. Cisco IOU L2
  33. Fulvio Ricciardi
  34. PacketFence ZEN
  35. Zentyal Server
  36. Cisco ASAv
  37. Cisco IOS XRv 9000
  38. Cisco 3745
  39. Windows
  40. Ubuntu
  41. MikroTik Cloud Hosted Router
  42. Citrix NetScaler VPX
  43. InterScan Web Security Virtual Appliance
  44. Dell FTOS
  45. OpenBSD
  46. Sophos UTM Home Edition
  47. WordPress
  48. Turnkey Linux
  49. OPNsense
  50. Cisco Web Security Virtual Appliance
  51. CentOS Cloud Guest
  52. Kali Linux
  53. Kerio Connect

Above are the few name for complete list more details og GNS3 appliances, you can visit "https://www.gns3.com/marketplace/appliance" and can download you favorite GNS3 virtual appliances
Thank you for visiting here.

Gns3 vm is not available please configure gns3 vm before adding new appliance

Gns3 vm is not available please configure gns3 vm before adding new appliance:

You may get this error “gns3 vm is not available please configure gns3 vm before adding new appliance” while installing a new appliance in GNS3. You may face same error while creating a VM lab in GNS3. 

Sometime you get this message “VMware vmrun tool could not be found, VMware or the VIX API (required for VMware player) is probably not installed. You can download it from https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vix-api/. After installation you need to restart GNS3. So this article provides a solution for this error.

You can resolve this issue with the following steps:

  1. Download and install any Software for creating Virtual Machines
  2. Download GNS3 VM from GNS3 .com
  3. Create Virtual machine for GNS3
  4. Connect this GNS3 VM with GNS3

 1. Download and install any Software for creating Virtual Machines:

You can use different software for creating virtual machines. But VMware the GNS3 recommended software for creating the virtual workstations. You can download the VMware workstation from their official website. Download and install the VMware and you are done with the first step.

2. Download GNS3 VM from GNS3 .com:

In next step you need you are required a VM for creating virtual labs on GNS3. There is pre-installed and pre-configured VM available on GNS3 website. You can download it from their website. You can find it link from Edit/preferences/GNS3 VM, see the following figure.

Or directly download VMware GNS3 VM from this link: https://github.com/GNS3/gns3-gui/releases/download/v2.1.20/GNS3.VM.VMware.Workstation.2.1.20.zip

3. Create Virtual machine for GNS3:

Once you have download this GNS3 VM, you need to extract it to folder and you will find file “GNS3 VM.ova”.

Now open the virtual Box and click on “open a virtual machine”, select the VM that you have downloaded in step 2.

Complete the wizard with default options and power on the GNS3 VM from virtual Box.

4. Connect this GNS3 VM with GNS3:

Now open the GNS3 and go to preferences and select the GNS3 VM from left side options.
Click the checkbox “enable the GNS3 VM”
OR create a new VM with this VMware machine.

Once you done you can install the GNS3 appliance successfully. Go to file menu and open the ‘import appliance”. Browse the appliance file and complete the wizard.

For more details you can watch the following Video:

This is complete troubleshooting guide for configuring the VMware with GMS3. If you are still getting any difficulty while using GNS3 appliances, you can share your views in comments. Thank you for visiting and have a good day.!



This article is about the topic i.e. vxlan vs vlan. VXlan (virtual extensive local area network) is the modern form of vlan and a new concept in network IT industry. VXLAN protocol or concept is introduced by two famous networking companies Cisco and VMware in 2010-2011. Later Intel, Broadcom and the other stack holder of network industry also contribute to develop this protocol.
This article is for giving you an overview of differences of these two Protocols VXLAN VS VLAN. But before going into detail of difference let learn little more about the VXLANs.

What is virtual extensive LAN or VXLAN?

Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) protocol are introduced to support more VLANs on network devices in cloud computing.
Basically VXLAN technology can provide the same services as VLAN does, but with better extensibility & flexibility. VXLAN used to running a Layer 2 network and extending it over a Layer-3 network. For this VXLAN uses MAC-in-UDP encapsulation.

How Does Virtual Extensible LAN Work?

Virtual Extensible LAN is an overlay protocol which allows you to give Layer 2 connections over an intervening Layer-3 network by encapsulating/tunneling Ethernet packet in a VXLAN frames that includes IPs. Network-Devices which support VXLANs are known as virtual_tunnel endpoints VTEPs, normally these are end hosts, switches or routers. Virtual tunnel endpoints encapsulate Virtual Extensible LAN’s traffic and de-encapsulate that traffic when it leaves the VXLAN-tunnel. Virtual tunnel endpoints add different fields to encapsulate an Ethernet-frame. Following are the field added by VTEPs in Ethernet frame.

·         Outer IP source address (IP of the tunnel-source Virtual tunnel endpoints (VTEP)
·         Outer IP destination address (IP address of tunnel_endpoint Virtual tunnel endpoints  VTEP)
·         MAC of the tunnel source VTEP
·         Outer MAC destination address

Now time to discuss some of the differences of vxlan vs vlan:




VLAN are used to divide the network into several broadcast domains. In each broadcast-domain, we can communicate with each other freely.
VXLAN provide layer 2 overlay networks on top of a layer-3 using MAC-in-UDP encapsulation. In easy words, VXLAN offer same services as VLAN, but with greater extensibility &  flexibility
With VXLAN you can have 16 million VLAN IDs in an administrative domain.
VLAN identifiers are only 12 bits long and can provide 4094 VLANs. 
VLANs are used to solve problems like Layer 2 network isolation, flood and as routing interface. VLAN supporting function is now available in most systems and network equipment such as Ethernet switches, routers and firewalls.
VXLAN provide layer 2 overlay networks on layer-3 using MAC-in-UDP and provide the more VLANs.
VXLAN technology is being used in cloud computing environment with large network data Centre consist of many devices.
VLAN protocol also support large networks but as compare to VXLAN there are only 4094 VLANs available.

VM can migrate between servers that exist in separate Layer 2 domains by tunneling the traffic over Layer 3 networks
Not available in VLAN
VXLAN uses Layer-3 routing-protocol to use all the available parts with technologies like Equal cost multipath Routing.
In case of VLAN there is STP which blocks redundant paths and hence allows using only half of available_paths.
VXLAN are Flexible & suitable to scaling out a large cloud network. 
VLAN are Less flexible for multi-tenant network.
VXLAN provide more security as compare to VLAN. Due to the structure of a VXLAN, tunneled traffic can utilize traditional security options, which authenticate and encrypt the traffic.

I hope this article is informative and helpful for you, Let me know in commends if I miss some differences, I will update it for other community. You can share this on social media.
Thank you for visiting here..!

ASAv 9.7 qcow2 Download VM Image For GNS3

ASA 9.7 qcow2 Download VM Image For GNS3 

The ASAv stands for Adaptive_ Security Virtual- Appliance is a virtualized network security solution based on market leading Cisco firewall ASA 5500 - X Series. ASAv provides next generation software defined network ( S D N ) or Cisco Application-Centric _Infrastructure (A C I ) environments to provide policy enforcement and threat inspection across heterogeneous multi-site environments.

You can use this virtual image in GNS3 and can create different network security labs in virtual environment. In this way you can test different security solution in virtual environment on GNS3.  This ASAv 9.7 
qcow2 IOS is easy & fast for disaster recovery comparing to hardware appliance as it is running on server-virtualization.

Prerequisites for installing ASAv 9.7 IOS in GNS3

If you are configuring ASAv 9.7 qcow2 firewall virtual servers in GNS3 , then you are required the following steps:

  • You are required to have GNS3 VM work station installed up and running on your workstation or server. In case that you do not have it, you can download it GNS3 VMware Workstation from internet.
  • You need to have Cisco ASAv 9.7 qcow2 image or IOS (asav941-203.qcow2, asav971.qcow2, or asav981-5.qcow2), you can download ASA 9.7 qcow2 from link below in same article.
  • You are required to have VM workstation for using the VM IOS with GNS3.
  • Required RAM: 2 GB

Download ASA 9.7 qcow2 VM Image For GNS3 :

From here you can download ASA 9.7 qcow2 VM Image For GNS3. This IOS is shared here only for educational purpose for test different virtual environment. For commercial use please contact with the concerned Vendor for license. 

Please download the ASAv 9.7 IOS from above link. After installing and using it please share your valuable comments. In case of issue please also share your experience.

Thank  you for visit here..!