Download Qemu guest IOS image for gns3

Qemu Image for GNS3:

Qemu Guest is used as a virtual PC in GNS3, one of the stable IOS image for qemu is linux-microcore-2.10. You can download it for this link : QEMU IMAGE FOR GNS3

For configuring IP address and gateway of qemu host in Gns3 you can visit configure Qemu in Gns3.

Download IOS for EthernetSwitch in GNS3 | IP addresses may not be configured on L2 links (solved)

Layer 3 switch for GNS3:

In GNS3 VirtualBox Edition Ethernet switch router is nice addition, using this emulated device you can perform different switching task like:

·         VTP (VLAN trunking Protocol)
·         VLANS
·         Inter-VLAN routing
·         SVI
You can assign an IP address to Ethernet switch router’s interfaces. You may receive the following error while configure the IP address for interface of this emulated device (Ethernet switch router).
“% IP addresses may not be configured on L2 links.”
If you find this type of error message then under the port you want to configure, run the command “no Switchport” and try the IP command once again.

Download layer 3 switch IOS (Integrated services router) for GNS3:

You can download this IOS with this link:  IOS for EthernetSwitch

baseconfig.txt GNS3 Error | Download Baseconfig.txt file

Baseconfig.txt: No such file or directory | 203-bad number of parameters (5 with min/max 2/2)

You may get the above message while inserting some of your router IOS in GNS3, normally this happen only to switch IOS for gns3 and all other devices IOS like routers, Qemu, computer, frame relay and server are working fine.

And after that when you try you start this router you may received message: 
203-bad number of parameters (5 with min/max 2/2)

Gns3 shows above message when there is not configured a proper path for basefile.txt file, basefile.txt contain the basic configuration or default configuration for respective IOS. You can configure the basefile in gns3 by following steps:

  1. Download the basefile.txt for Gns3 from this link.
  2. Open "IOS images and hypervisors" windows from edit menu.
  3. locate the basefile.txt that you have download in step-1
  4. Once you can finished the above steps, click on save.

Hope this article is helpful and informative for you and i like to thank you for reading this article.

Download Cisco 7200 series Router IOS for GNS3

Router IOS for GNS3:

Cisco 7200 series routers are enterprise or edge routers normally used at service provider edge or as a WAN edge. These Cisco routers have some advance features like Broadband aggregation, MPLS, IP Security VPN (IP Sec VPN), IPv6 routing and some other ISP features. Also provide Voice, video, and data integration: TDM-enabled VXR chassis and voice port adapters.

You can test and try some of these features on GNS3, you download its IOS from following link:

Cisco 7200 series Router IOS

Cisco 2900 series IOS for  gns3

Thank you..! Learn Cisco Commands

PIX Firewall IOS for GNS3 free Download

Download PIX IOS for GNS3:

Cisco PIX (Private Internet eXchange) is a most famous firewall security Appliance and also commonly used for network address translation (NAT).  In 2008 Cisco announced PIX end-of-sale and continued its new firewall know as Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA), that have much of PIX features. Cisco ASA was introduced In 2005. Although PIX is end of Sale, but we still have many networks where PIX is still running so it is still important for your professional experience. 

You can also run PIX IOS on GNS3 and can practice different security lab at home. you can download PIX IOS from following link:
Download PIX IOS

For Lastest ASAv 9.7 IOS for GNS3 click here.
Note: there is not enable password set for this IOS, if it asked for password simply press enter-key.

Configuration of PIX IOS image in GNS3 is very simple and easy:

1. Locate it IOS path in "Binary image".
2. Set its name in "identifier name".
3. And then click on save and OK.

for more details you can visit configuration of PIX in GNs3.

Download ASA IOS/Image for GNS3

ASA Image for GNS3:

You can run the ASA on your GNS3 by configuring the ASA IOS on GNS3. For configuration of ASA on GNS3 you need following two image files:

For configuration of ASA on Gns3 you can visit how to add ASA in Gns3 1.1 or just review the following figure.

For new version:

Where you need to perform only three steps:

  1. Type identifier name
  2. Browse the initrd file
  3.  Define the path for kernel file and click on save.

Download Cisco Switch IOS for GNS3

Cisco switch ios for gns3:

In Gns3 by default there is no such option for creating switch topology, but you can use the router as a switch with NM-16ESW module. There are number of IOS which can support NM-16ESW module, one of most common Switch IOS for GNS3 is 3600 series c3640.

Using this IOS you can perform different Gns3 labs like:   

You can download gns3 switch IOS from following link:

You learn how to use switch in GNs3.

Hub vs Switch vs Repeater | LAN Devices Comparison/differences

What is Repeater in Computer networking?
Repeater is physical layer device, it works on the physical layer of OSI model. Repeater are used to amplify signal and it is actually a signal regenerator. The repeater extend the length of the LAN segment, provide the long distance communication. The most typical application of the repeater is to connect two or more segments of the Ethernet cable, its purpose is to extend the length of the network and however extension is limited.Active hubs are example of repeaters. They are the cheapest way to connect two or more computers together. In modern networks we are using the wifi repeaters.
Repeaters can be connected to the same transmission medium of the same LAN and also may connect different kind of LAN transmission medium (for example: coaxial cable with Ethernet).

What is Hub in Computer networking?

Hub are physical layer device and provide common connection points for multiple devices on Ethernet.Hub is pure hardware device and there is no system software. Hubs mainly used to connect computers and other network terminal within LAN.
In Hub bandwidth is shared, only one device can send the data at a time, all other devices must have to wait, once the sending is finished then the bandwidth used by the other devices. Thus the hub is consider to a network collision domain.

Hubs cannot determine the destination of the packet and type, so it forward broadcast packets, and all devices send data as a broadcast to each interface, so hub is consider as multiple broadcast domain.

Switch in Computer networking?

Switch works at the data link layer (second layer) of OSI model. Switch breaks Ethernet segment into multiple collision domains, each port/interface on the switch is a collision domain so device connected to switch does not conflict with other communication interfaces.
Switch is more intelligent device as compare to hub it has software or operating system. Switch forward the packets on basis of MAC address. Whenever switch forward the packets to some device on network it also stores its MAC address into its MAC address table and once the MAC address table is build up, next time data will not be sent as broadcast but sent to interface, saving the interface bandwidth.
End point switches not only can record the MAC address table, you can also divide VLAN (Virtual LAN) to isolate the broadcast, but also inter VLAN communication you need a router.

Difference between Hub and Switch:

Hubs are the pure hardware for connecting network terminal and cannot break collision domains and broadcast domains.
Switch: with software system used to connect to the network terminals, able to break collision domains, but not split broadcast domains

Following table provide us the quick comparison of each Network device:

OSI Layer
Or Protocol Aware?
What It

Physical Layer (Layer-1)




Physical Layer (Layer-1)



Datalink Layer (Layer-2)



Datalink Layer (Layer-2)



Network Layer (Layer-3)


Layer 3
Network Layer (Layer-3)


Cisco ISR Vs ISR-G2 Features Comparison

Cisco Integrated Services Routers:
The Integrated Services Routers (ISR) is an integrated multi-service routers and is leading a new era of Cisco products, pioneered the ability to secure, wire-speed delivery of concurrent data, voice and video services routers, including new platforms and wireless services.

Cisco Integrated Services G2 Routers:

The Cisco ISR G2 router series has the intelligence and scale to transform service delivery for cloud, mobile devices, and multimedia applications, providing optimal user experience, exceptional security, and simplified operations. (Ref:

Cisco ISR G2
Cisco ISR
Network processor
Multicore network processor with future expandability
Cisco ISR device normally have Single network processor
IOS image
Single universal IOS image
Multiple images
WAN performance
Up to 350 Mbps with services
Up to 45 Mbps with services
Field-upgradeable motherboard
Single motherboard
Service module
performance and
Up to 7X with dual core and 1 TB
1X and 160 GB storage
Onboard DSPs
Voice- and video-ready DSPs
Voice only
Switch modules
Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet with
POE+ based on Catalyst
Fast Ethernet with Power over
Ethernet (PoE); based on Catalyst
Services delivery
Field-upgradeable motherboard
Energy efficiency
Real-time power reporting

Default Administrative Distances for IP Routes

What is Administrative Distance?
Administrative distance refers to a routing protocol routing credibility. Every routing protocol by low reliability, in turn assigned a trust level, the level of trust is called administrative distance.

List of Default Administrative Distances for IP Routes for Cisco Routers
Following is the complete list of administrative distances of all IP routes/links that a router uses to forwarding the IP packets.

IP Route
Administrative Distance
Connected interface

Static route directed to a connected interface

Static route directed to an IP address

EIGRP summary route

External BGP route

Internal EIGRP route

IGRP route

OSPF route

IS-IS route

RIP route

EGP route

External EIGRP route

Internal BGP route

Route of unknown origin


Huawei routers

Direct route 

Access GNS3 Router with Cisco SDM

Cisco SDM (Security Device Manager) is a Web-based application that provides the GUI for different Cisco routers, with this you can easily troubleshoot complex network and VPN connectivity issues. Also Cisco SDM a useful application for non-cisco professional who don’t have the enough knowledge of Cisco commands, they can configure Cisco Devices with SDM easily. In this article I will show you that how you can access and connect a GNS3 virtual router thought Cisco SDM (Security Device Manager). You need to follow the below steps to accomplish this.

ü  Install Cisco SDM
ü  Configure GNS3 Router for SDM
ü  Connect router to SDM

Install Cisco SDM:
You can download SDM from or from many other website. Installation of Cisco SDM is straightforward and you just need to follow a simple wizard.

Configure GNS3 Router for SDM
Cisco SDM is a web base Device Manager for Cisco devices, when you use SDM its involve HTTP and HTTPs protocol and you need to enable these two protocols on Cisco Router so that you can access it from Cisco SDM. You can enable the HTTP and HTTPs on Cisco router by following commands.

For demonstration I have created the following lab in GNS3 and I have following Applications in this gns3-lab:

GNS3 version: GNS3-0.7.4-win32-all-in-one
Router IOS: 7200 series (c7200-jk9s-mz.124-13b)
OS: Windows XP with Internet Explorer 8
I have connected the R1’s f1/0 interface to gns3-cloud so that internal Gns3 router can be accessible from my local computer. For configuring a cloud you need to add your Ethernet interface in cloud-configuration. Now you can connect the router Ethernet interface with this cloud interface. You can learn more about use gns3 cloud.

R1 Configurations:

(Since I have connected this interface with physical LAN connection which has IP address, you can use IP scheme according to your setting.)

R2 Configurations:

After above configuration you can ping your virtual routers IP and

Connect router to SDM
Now open the SDM and type the IP address of router, in my case it is and it will open the following console.

After some processing it will open the SDM in internet explorer, it may ask you for enabling ActiveX Setting, click yes.

Note: It may show you the following screen and stop on this windows, in this case you just need to press F5 and click yes for ActiveX Setting.

Now you can access you Virtual router with SDM and can configure and practice the virtual router with GUI interface. Hope this will work for you.

Windows 8 Shortcuts Keys | Keyboard Shortcuts

Presumably a lot of people have started to use Windows 8, the traditional sliding with new touch interface should allow everyone to spend a lot of time learning the fact. In this article I will introduce you some important shortcuts that are really useful while using windows 8.
Microsoft exclude “start button” from windows 8 and introduce a toolbar. You can open this toolbar using the mouse is moved to the upper right or lower right corner. From keyboard you can call it using "Windows key + C". In addition, each toolbar fact also has a corresponding shortcut keys, such as the search for the "Windows key + Q", and you can use "Windows + I" for setting where you can find control panel as well.

To switch applications in addition to the traditional "Alt + Tab", also can use the "Windows key + Tab" to use the new program management interface to switch between open programs. In addition, you want to use two applications at the same time you can also use the Windows key +. (dot) to open.

Windows 8 actually still have reservations about the Start menu, not only content, streamlining the only setting program, such as console, execute, search functionality. Use the mouse moved to the far left, right-click to use the keyboard is "Windows key + X" can quickly call this menu.

Following are
Commonly Toolbar: Windows key + C
Search: Windows key + Q
Check the Share files and folder on your PC: Windows key + H
Start: Windows key
Device: Windows key + K
Control panel in windows 8 and other Settings: Windows key + I

About the search, there are detailed shortcuts:

Search settings: Windows key + W

Find File in windows 8: Windows key + F

Call the desktop Start menu: Windows key + X

Open MY Computer or File Manager: Windows key + E
Open the program toolbar: Windows key + Z
Open the Run: Windows key + R
Open Desktop: Windows key + D
Exit the application: Alt + F4

Switch the toolbar of the window: Windows key + T
Switching applications: Windows key + Tab
Switch to the notification area: Windows key + B
Window becomes transparent and will show desktop: Windows key + comma
Use two applications: Windows key + dot
Shutdown windows 8 or open a program administrator: Ctrl + Alt + Del and then keyboard select
Lock your computer: Windows key + L
The switch second screen settings: Windows key + P
Open Ease of Access Center: Windows key + U